Category Archives for 1=Initiation

What You Need for a Great Project Charter

In this article, let's explore what you need for a great project charter.

John Maxwell says, “All great leaders possess two things: They know where they are going, and they are able to persuade others to follow.”

And, one of the most powerful tools for improving project communication is the project charter.

Think about it—in the project charter process, project sponsors and managers have the opportunity to engage key stakeholders for the express purpose of defining the vision of a project.

Without a project charter and clear communication, people are left to their own devices. And believe me, individuals, groups, and organizations will come up with their own versions of the project. United, project teams succeed; divided, they fall.

So, what do you need to create a great project charter?

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Tired of confusion and rework due to a lack of early stakeholder engagement and agreement? Join me in the What, Why, & How of Powerful Project Charters. Just want the RiskNotes? Grab a copy of my eBook—Start Writing Your Project Charter Today.

1. An Engaged Project Sponsor

First of all, you need an engaged project sponsor. PMI Pulse research shows actively engaged sponsors are by far the top driver of projects meeting their original goals and business intent.

Sponsors are typically senior level executives from the C-suite. These individuals should possess authority in the organization that allows them to secure the funding and resources necessary for the project. They should also ensure that their projects align with the vision, mission, goals, and strategies of their organization.

So, how do sponsors start projects? These leaders see a need or opportunity. For example, the head of the Accounting Department may see billing problems due to a dated bug-prone billing system. Furthermore, the sponsor creates and submits a project charter to the Project Board or similar group for approval.

PMI Pulse research shows actively engaged sponsors are by far the top driver of projects meeting their original goals and business intent.

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So, what do you do when your sponsor is busy and you are having difficulty getting their attention? Elizabeth Harrin provides some great tips on What to Do When Your Sponsor is Too Busy.

2. Engaged Project Stakeholders

In addition, we need engaged stakeholders. Not everyone, mind you, but we do want the key stakeholders involved in the project charter process. Wise sponsors invite key stakeholders to the initial meetings to discuss the project charter and to obtain their input.

When sponsors choose to ignore stakeholders or purposely keep them out of the charter process, risk increases. These same stakeholders will discover the project later and may adversely influence the project. It's not like they have malicious intent. Rather, they understand aspects of the project that they sponsor was not aware of such as regulatory requirements or how the project may affect other operational activities. 

3. A Project Charter Template

Over time, organizations develop organizational assets such as project management templates. Ask your PMO or project management group if a project charter template is available.

The template provides structure and the common elements prescribed within an organization. Keep in mind, you may need to modify the template to some degree to fit your project. For example, you may add your project success criteria to a template that lacks this element.

Online Course: The What, Why, & How of Powerful Project Charters

One of the best ways to reduce communication risks early in your projects is by writing project charters. This is not a documentation exercise! The aim is to ensure that the project sponsor, project manager, and the key stakeholders are on the same page. In this course, you will discover the 16 powerful elements of a project charter, how to use a project charter after initiation, the four project charter checkpoints, the secret sauce of writing clear goals, and how to right-size your project charters.

Five Ways to Reduce Risk Exposure Early

When is risk exposure greatest in a project? In the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the project? It's actually highest in the beginning. Let's look at how to reduce risk exposure early in your projects.

Why Risk Exposure Is Greatest in the Beginning

So, why is your risk exposure greatest in the beginning? Project managers have the least amount of information. Uncertainty is the greatest. We know very little about the:

  • Goals of the project
  • Deliverables
  • Requirements
  • Budget
  • Constraints
  • Success criteria
  • Availability of resources

Here are five activities that you can undertake to reduce the risk exposure early.

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12 Good Reasons You Are Struggling With Small Projects

“Why am I still having problems with small projects?

This plaintive question is one I’m asked from time to time. I’d like to give some reasons why project managers struggle to manage small projects.

Pitfalls of Small Projects

1. You think these endeavors are simple. In general, smaller endeavors have less risk. However, these may have a complex set of variables.

Be sure to analyze the complexity. For example, you may engage your team to develop a context diagram and/or data flow diagrams early. This exercise allows the team to understand the context of the project.

2. You don’t have a charter. Individuals are assigned projects at the last minute with a tight deadline. Rather than discussing the undertaking with stakeholders and documenting the business case, problems, goals, and deliverables, the project manager hits the ground running. Later, stakeholders demand costly changes.

Make it a priority to engage your key stakeholders and develop a project charter. This exercise will provide a good foundation and reduce the changes later. For smaller endeavors, one should be able to create a charter in short order.

3. You are applying the wrong level of rigor. I see two extremes: First, managers do not follow any methodology. Second, managers perform unneeded tasks.

Keep it simple. Determine the steps you plan to take and develop the planning documents that will provide real value. Execute and stay with the plan.

4. The Project Sponsor is invisible. Many pint-sized-projects have no sponsor at all. The organization may assign a sponsor, but the sponsor has abdicated his or her role to the project manager or someone on the team.

If you don’t have a sponsor, solicit a fitting sponsor. Discuss with the sponsor their role and ask for their commitment.

5. Your team has been poorly staffed. Often, these undertakings are assigned leftover resources. Any warm body will do or will it?

For all endeavors, define the required knowledge and skills. Seek to staff the team accordingly.

6. Poor risk management. Yes, smaller ventures typically have less risk. This does not mean there are zero risks.

Risk management should not take much time, but be sure to integrate risk management in your project activities. Simple qualitative analysis should be sufficient for evaluating the risks.

7. You are not performing change management. A stakeholder asks for a change in the scope. It’s not a big change. You say okay.

Users request additional changes over time. The cumulative effect becomes significant.

Decide upfront how you will manage, track, and report changes. When is a change order required? Who has to approve it?

8. You are managing a project no one cares about. Projects may be selected arbitrarily. In some cases, the project does not align with the company’s strategy. The team knows the venture is a low priority and give it little attention.

This is a management issue. Management should create a Project Board that reviews requests for strategic alignment.

9. Your team is too large. Your project may be small, but it impacts several areas of the company. Everyone feels like they need someone on the team. You have fifteen people on the team when a handful will do.

Create a small core team. Make sure the team represents the primary stakeholder groups. You may wish to create a supplemental team of individuals who may be engaged as needed.

10. You are using the wrong tools. One may spend more time setting up their tools than managing the effort.

Keep things simple. For example, rather than using complex scheduling tools, you may use Excel.

11. You are managing too many projects. An individual may have a heavier load than they can manage. These managers may have difficulty prioritizing and juggling all the activities resulting in wasted time.

The resource manager should be careful to assess each project, estimate the time required for each project manager. Monitor success rates for these endeavors and make adjustments as needed.

12. You have not identified the important stakeholders. Surely we know who the stakeholders are or do we? We are tempted to skip the stakeholder identification.

Don’t make the common stakeholder mistakes. Small projects can touch a complex set of variables. Neglect in identifying and managing the stakeholders can be costly later in the project.

How About You?

Take a few minutes to review your small projects. Do you need to let go of some misconceptions and make some changes? Create some new habits. Don’t allow yourself to slip back into unproductive behaviors.

How to Write SMART Project Goals

What is the role of the project manager? The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) says, "The project manager is the person assigned by the performing organization to lead the team that is responsible for achieving the project objectives (my italics)." Defining clear objectives and goals is the foundation of the project. Let's look at how to write SMART goals.

"People with clear, written goals, accomplish far more in a shorter period of time than people without them could ever imagine." —Brian Tracy

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5 Powerful Ways to Improve Your Project Approval Process

Many organizations have a Project Board that approves programs and projects resulting in a project portfolio. The Board chooses projects and programs that align and support the organization's mission, values, goals, and strategies. Today, let's look at five ways to improve your project approval process.

Project Approval Process

Project Approval Process

1

Create a Project Board

Create a Project Board or Project Steering Team to approve projects. Project sponsors submit their projects to the board for approval. Better yet, have the project sponsors make brief presentations to the board and respond to questions.

2

Define Selection Criteria

The Project Board should define the project selection criteria. Defining and communicating the criteria saves time. Project sponsors will not waste time on projects that will not make the cut. For example, selection criteria might include: 1) strategic importance, 2) regulatory compliance, 3) financial viability, and 4) business and technical flexibility to accommodate future changes, to name a few.

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Ask the Right Questions at the Right Time

The success of a project manager largely lies in the individual’s ability to communicate. Some project managers have great oratory skills but don’t ask the right questions at the right time.

Here are some key questions for each of the project management process groups. This is not meant to be a comprehensive list; just some questions to get you thinking. Neither will you need to ask all of these questions for every project.

Keep in mind, the project process groups are seldom sequential, one-time events; they are overlapping activities that occur throughout the project.

Ask the Right Questions at the Right Time

Initiating Process Group

  1. Why are we doing this project?
  2. Is your project sponsor fully engaged and on board?
  3. What is the authority level of the project manager?
  4. What do we wish to accomplish?
  5. What are the products and services we wish to deliver?
  6. What are the budget constraints?
  7. What are the schedule constraints?
  8. What assumptions are being made?
  9. Who will be impacted? Which stakeholders have the greatest interest and power?
  10. Who will comprise the project team?
  11. What are the most significant risks?
  12. How will we know if the project was successful?

The Project Charter

Unfortunately, many people think of the project charter as an administrative hoop they must jump through to get their project approved. Therefore, many charters are written hastily with little thought.


The value of the charter process is engaging stakeholders, discussing the issues, resolving conflicts, and getting agreement as you initiate the project. The stakeholder interest is considered and aligned, resulting in less likelihood of costly changes later in the project.


Read: How to Develop a Project Charter

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Are You Making These 8 Stakeholder Mistakes?

Have you ever had someone torpedo your project? Did this individual have a motive to undermine your efforts? Or, did you make some stakeholder mistakes that gave rise to this event?

Either way, it's hindering your progress. Things are not going as planned. What can we do to manage stakeholder risks better?

stakeholder mistakes

A Stakeholder Story

I once observed a  junior project manager who was knighted to manage a project with a fixed regulatory deadline. Software changes were needed. The project sponsor told the project manager that it was critical that the project be delivered on time. No exceptions!

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Knighted Project Manager 

The project manager formed a project team. Within days, the project team started making programming changes. The team worked evenings and weekends.

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How to Initiate a Project Steering Committee

Someone decided that it was a good idea to bring project management into your organization. Perhaps it was your CEO or operations manager or IT Director. But for some reason, it never took off. Project management has not been supported by your culture. Let's look at how to get things in flight with a project steering committee.

Project Steering Committee

What's the Current State?

Start with an evaluation. Here are some questions to aid you in discovering the deeper issues. Interview your stakeholders to get their feedback.

  • When your organization introduced to project management, what were the problems project management was to address? If the problems have not been addressed, what is it costing you right now?
  • What's working well?
  • What's not working?
  • How can we get more value from project management?

Initiate a Project Steering Committee

Sometimes, the person responsible for project management (e.g., PMO Director or Project Services Manager) fails to involve stakeholders in evaluating project management. This person makes changes in project management with little to no input from the people being impacted. A better approach is to get regular feedback through a Project Steering Committee.

The purpose of the committee is to improve process and results. The Steering Committee determines the required changes, how much change is needed, and how fast changes need to occur.

Who Should Comprise the Project Steering Committee?

It is best if an influential senior member of your organization sponsors the committee. The sponsor helps to establish the vision and ensures the commitment of resources. But this person doesn’t have to manage the committee.

The Steering Committee may be managed by the person responsible for project management, a person with the proper credentials and experience. The team should include representatives from different areas such as IT, project management, and business operations. Ideally, team members have had project management training and have project experience.

Team Size and Tenure

An optimal team size is six to eight people. Team members should serve no longer than a year. You may wish to implement a staggered rotation where you add a couple of new team members and drop a couple of team members periodically.

Meeting Frequency/Time

The Steering Committee may meet as often as desired—for example, monthly, quarterly, or twice per year.

Plan for Improvement

How should the team approach the evaluation and improvement? Determine the problems and define a plan for improvement.

  • Define the problem(s) to be addressed (e.g., requirements defects are being identified late in the projects or poor communication between projects).
  • Define the goals.
  • Describe how you will measure success (i.e., desired effects).
  • Define the scope of changes (e.g., risk management planning process).
  • Identify team members who will develop, implement, and test the changes.
  • Define the action plan and completion date.
  • Execute the plan.

Try executing the changes for one of your projects to test the improvements.

Reviewing the Results

Once the team has executed and tested the improvement plan, the team should report their findings to the Steering Committee. The team should recommend one of the following:

  • Make the change(s) for subsequent projects.
  • Do not make the change(s).
  • Test again with modifications.

Final Thoughts

Implementing project management in an organization is not an easy task. Why? Because people are resistant to change, particularly when individuals do not understand the reason for the changes. Be patient. Listen carefully. Evolve at a healthy pace, not too fast and not too slow. Your Steering Committee can provide the feedback necessary to guide your pace and maturation.  

 

How To Manage Fixed Date Projects

Fixed date projects occur often these days. The project sponsor picks a date and hands you the project. So, what's a project manager to do? How can we manage fixed date projects?

First of all, don’t freak out. Some things are unrealistic, but others are not. Be positive and ask for some time to do some analysis. Let your sponsor know that you will come back in a week or two with the results.

Second, seek to understand why. Why is the deadline so critical? Be careful in how you ask this. You’re not challenging the sponsor. Rather, you simply want to see things from the perspective of the sponsor. Listen carefully.

Third, start defining the scope. What are the deliverables and the priorities of each deliverable? Can some of the deliverables be implemented later? 

Fourth, engage your stakeholders early. Ask them to help you with the analysis. Seek their expertise.

What to Share with Your Project Sponsor

So, what do you share with your sponsor when your analysis is complete? Think of the situation like a puzzle. Consequently, you may offer different options.

  • Respond with a date range such as, "The desired deadline was March 31st. Our analysis shows that the project can be completed between May 1st and June 30th."
  • See if additional resources can be added. "If we can add these two resources at a cost of $50,000, we can complete the project between April 15th and May 15th."
  • Can the scope can be modified? "Furthermore, if we can remove or postpone the lower priority deliverables, we can complete the project between March 31st and April 15th.

So, what do you say to a project sponsor when you've completed the analysis and you know that the deadline is unrealistic? Tell them the truth. Explain the process you went through, who was involved, the constraints, and the results.

10 Things to Do in Fixed Date Projects

When challenged with a fixed date project, think of it as an opportunity. Often times, you can deliver the project on time with the right approach. Here are some things to consider:

  1. Be positive. Establish a positive working relationship with your sponsor and stakeholders.
  2. Negotiate for the best resources. People, more than anything, will win the day.
  3. Select your project lifecycle. Will you use a traditional waterfall approach or an agile method? The answer to this question has significant implications in aiding or hindering your goals.
  4. Define the project charter. Include a problem statement, goals, deliverables, assumptions, constraints, exclusions, high-level risks, stakeholders, and team members.
  5. Define and prioritize requirements. In agile projects, work with your product owner to define and prioritize your user stories in the requirements backlog.
  6. Define the scope. Clarify what will be included in the product scope and determine your project scope—the work to be done to create and deliver the products, service, and results.
  7. Create the work breakdown structure (WBS). One of the best ways to engage your team members and define the scope is through the facilitation of a WBS exercise
  8. Develop your schedule. If your critical path extends beyond the fixed date, work with your sponsor and team to reduce the scope or postpone features for future stages or iterations (part of managing the triple threat constraint).
  9. Complete the initial risk identification and assessment. 
  10. Build a contingency reserve. This reserve is not an artificial buffer. The contingency reserve is based on known residual risks.

Keep in mind - good risk management often shortens the project. Risks are eliminated or decreased. However, there are always residual risks that should be recognized in your contingency reserve. For example, you may specify that the project requires an additional six weeks to accommodate risks on the project.

Two Ways to Deliver Faster

  • Add resources to critical path tasks. Be careful. Adding resources or stretching existing resources may cause more harm than help. Crashing also results in increased costs.
  • Fast track tasks. Look for ways to execute critical path tasks in parallel. Be careful—​fast-tracking tasks can result in rework and greater risks.

Your approach to a fixed date project will determine your success. The project manager must have the right attitude, ensure appropriate commitments by the sponsor and the team, and select the right processes, tools, and techniques.

How To Improve Schedule Estimates

Have you ever had an executive ask how long a project will take before the project started? Yeah, I've been there too. 

When asked, PAUSE. Be careful about how you respond.

Why? Because your credibility is at hand. Let's talk about the challenges of schedule estimates and three estimating techniques that can help us do a better job with our estimates. Lastly, we'll look at how to respond to future requests for estimates.

Challenges With Schedule Estimates

What happens if someone estimates a task to take 10 days when it should only take 5 days? Work expands to fill the time alloted.

Conversely, what happens when someone estimates a task to take 5 days when it should take 10? People rush their work. The results are poor quality, rework, higher costs, and adverse impacts on the schedule.

During and after each project, compare your actuals to your estimates. Do you see a pattern where certain team members estimate too high or too low? Consider how you can work with these individuals to improve estimates for future projects.

3 Estimating Techniques

Each estimating technique has its strengths and weaknesses. Project managers should understand and apply each estimating technique appropriately.

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