Category Archives for 1=Initiation

Why Stakeholder Analysis is Important

Project stakeholders are individuals, groups, and organizations that may affect or be affected by your projects. It's critical to understand how people inside and outside your organization may impact your projects. In this post, we will explore why stakeholder analysis is important. Furthermore, I'll provide you with two tools for quick assessments.

picture of project stakeholders in a meeting

Why Analyze Project Stakeholders

Some project managers say they don't have enough time to analyze the stakeholders. That's a mistake!

So, why is it important? The short answer – to determine how to best invest your time and energy.

Stakeholders are NOT the same. Their power, interest, influence, expectations, and impact differ greatly. Consequently, it's important to identify the most influential stakeholders.

Once the key stakeholders are determined, it's time to develop a stakeholder engagement plan and influence them at the right times. Why? To navigate stakeholder-related threats. Furthermore, you can develop the most critical relationships. 

Allow me to introduce you to two powerful tools: the stakeholder classification grids and the stakeholder engagement assessment matrix.

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10 Ways to Engage Project Stakeholders

Do you have a stakeholder engagement plan? Have you stopped to think about the diverse needs of your stakeholders? Which stakeholders have the most power and influence? When and how will you engage these people?

Project Stakeholders

What is a Stakeholder Engagement Plan?

The stakeholder engagement plan is "a component of the project management plan that identifies the strategies and actions required to promote productive involvement of stakeholders in project or program decision making and execution (PMBOK® Guide – Sixth Edition, Page 723)."

Stakeholder engagement includes ways to attract and involve individuals, groups, and organizations who may be affected by a project or may affect the project.

Stakeholder Engagement Plan. A component of the project management plan that identifies the strategies and actions required to promote productive involvement of stakeholders in project or program decision making and execution.

– PMBOK® Guide – Sixth Edition –

Let’s look at some practical ways that you can better engage and influence your project stakeholders at the right times in your project lifecycle.

10 Ways to Engage Project Stakeholders

  1. Identify stakeholders early. You can’t engage stakeholders until you know who they are. As you are initiating your projects, start identifying your stakeholders. Additionally, create a project stakeholder register.
  2. Get stakeholders talking to one another. I invite key stakeholders to my initial project meetings as we are developing the project charter. I want to surface and resolve conflicts as soon as possible.
  3. Seek to understand before being understood. Steven Covey shared this principle years ago. It still holds true. Furthermore, people want to know that you really want to hear their perspective first.
  4. Listen, really listen. Part of understanding is making time to sit face-to-face, when possible, and truly listen. Ask probing questions.
  5. Lead with integrity. Meaningful engagement requires trust. Say what you mean; mean what you say. And then do what you said you would do.
  6. Engage your stakeholders in the estimates. Ask the people that will do the work for estimates. And help stakeholders to understand that there is greater uncertainty in the early estimates. Commit to providing refined estimates as your projects progress.
  7. Work WITH your team. The best project managers work with their stakeholders to break down their projects into deliverables and tasks. This helps everyone to have a better understanding of the project. Furthermore, stakeholders will more likely support a plan that they helped create.
  8. Manage expectations. Each of your stakeholders has expectations, sometimes false expectations. Working with your team will clarify many of these aspects of the project.
  9. Say thank you. The project managers I enjoy most know two simple words—thank you. When team members and other stakeholders complete activities, respond to emails and voicemails, make you aware of things you didn’t know, respond with thanks.
  10. Communicate, communicate, communicate. Ninety percent of a project manager’s job is communication. Develop and maintain a communications plan. Creative project managers minimize a potential communications breakdown by communicating through a variety of channels, not one or two.

Are You Actually Influencing Your Project Stakeholders?

I recently spoke with a project manager who works in a Project Management Office (PMO). Susan told me how people resist project management in her organization, a story that I've heard countless times.

When I asked, "What are you doing to get support and buy-in?" With a puzzled look, Susan said, "It's always been that way and I doubt it will ever change."

Whether you are leading a PMO, a program, or a challenging project, you may have resigned yourself and feel there's nothing you can do. I encourage you to develop a stakeholder engagement plan.

Identify and assess your stakeholders. Work with others to develop a plan to engage and influence the key stakeholders. And as Winston Churchill said, "Never, never, never give up."

How to Develop a Project Charter

In this post I'm going to show you how to develop a project charter.

In fact, these are the exact techniques that I used to create charters for small-budget to multi-million dollar projects.

Let's kick things off by defining the project charter.

text: how to develop a project charter

What is a Project Charter?

A project charter is a "document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities" (PMBOK® Guide—Sixth Edition. Page 715).

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Five Ways to Reduce Risk Exposure Early

When is risk exposure greatest in a project? In the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the project? It's actually highest in the beginning. Let's look at how to reduce risk exposure early in your projects.

Why Risk Exposure Is Greatest in the Beginning

So, why is your risk exposure greatest in the beginning? Project managers have the least amount of information. Uncertainty is the greatest. We know very little about the:

  • Goals of the project
  • Deliverables
  • Requirements
  • Budget
  • Constraints
  • Success criteria
  • Availability of resources

Here are five activities that you can undertake to reduce the risk exposure early.

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12 Good Reasons You Are Struggling With Small Projects

“Why am I still having problems with small projects?

This plaintive question is one I’m asked from time to time. I’d like to give some reasons why project managers struggle to manage small projects.

Pitfalls of Small Projects

1. You think these endeavors are simple. In general, smaller endeavors have less risk. However, these may have a complex set of variables.

Be sure to analyze the complexity. For example, you may engage your team to develop a context diagram and/or data flow diagrams early. This exercise allows the team to understand the context of the project.

2. You don’t have a charter. Individuals are assigned projects at the last minute with a tight deadline. Rather than discussing the undertaking with stakeholders and documenting the business case, problems, goals, and deliverables, the project manager hits the ground running. Later, stakeholders demand costly changes.

Make it a priority to engage your key stakeholders and develop a project charter. This exercise will provide a good foundation and reduce the changes later. For smaller endeavors, one should be able to create a charter in short order.

3. You are applying the wrong level of rigor. I see two extremes: First, managers do not follow any methodology. Second, managers perform unneeded tasks.

Keep it simple. Determine the steps you plan to take and develop the planning documents that will provide real value. Execute and stay with the plan.

4. The Project Sponsor is invisible. Many pint-sized-projects have no sponsor at all. The organization may assign a sponsor, but the sponsor has abdicated his or her role to the project manager or someone on the team.

If you don’t have a sponsor, solicit a fitting sponsor. Discuss with the sponsor their role and ask for their commitment.

5. Your team has been poorly staffed. Often, these undertakings are assigned leftover resources. Any warm body will do or will it?

For all endeavors, define the required knowledge and skills. Seek to staff the team accordingly.

6. Poor risk management. Yes, smaller ventures typically have less risk. This does not mean there are zero risks.

Risk management should not take much time, but be sure to integrate risk management in your project activities. Simple qualitative analysis should be sufficient for evaluating the risks.

7. You are not performing change management. A stakeholder asks for a change in the scope. It’s not a big change. You say okay.

Users request additional changes over time. The cumulative effect becomes significant.

Decide upfront how you will manage, track, and report changes. When is a change order required? Who has to approve it?

8. You are managing a project no one cares about. Projects may be selected arbitrarily. In some cases, the project does not align with the company’s strategy. The team knows the venture is a low priority and give it little attention.

This is a management issue. Management should create a Project Board that reviews requests for strategic alignment.

9. Your team is too large. Your project may be small, but it impacts several areas of the company. Everyone feels like they need someone on the team. You have fifteen people on the team when a handful will do.

Create a small core team. Make sure the team represents the primary stakeholder groups. You may wish to create a supplemental team of individuals who may be engaged as needed.

10. You are using the wrong tools. One may spend more time setting up their tools than managing the effort.

Keep things simple. For example, rather than using complex scheduling tools, you may use Excel.

11. You are managing too many projects. An individual may have a heavier load than they can manage. These managers may have difficulty prioritizing and juggling all the activities resulting in wasted time.

The resource manager should be careful to assess each project, estimate the time required for each project manager. Monitor success rates for these endeavors and make adjustments as needed.

12. You have not identified the important stakeholders. Surely we know who the stakeholders are or do we? We are tempted to skip the stakeholder identification.

Don’t make the common stakeholder mistakes. Small projects can touch a complex set of variables. Neglect in identifying and managing the stakeholders can be costly later in the project.

How About You?

Take a few minutes to review your small projects. Do you need to let go of some misconceptions and make some changes? Create some new habits. Don’t allow yourself to slip back into unproductive behaviors.

How to Write SMART Project Goals

What is the role of the project manager? The Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) says, "The project manager is the person assigned by the performing organization to lead the team that is responsible for achieving the project objectives (my italics)." Defining clear objectives and goals is the foundation of the project. Let's look at how to write SMART goals.

"People with clear, written goals, accomplish far more in a shorter period of time than people without them could ever imagine." —Brian Tracy

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5 Powerful Ways to Improve Your Project Approval Process

Many organizations have a Project Board that approves programs and projects resulting in a project portfolio. The Board chooses projects and programs that align and support the organization's mission, values, goals, and strategies. Today, let's look at five ways to improve your project approval process.

Project Approval Process

Project Approval Process

1

Create a Project Board

Create a Project Board or Project Steering Team to approve projects. Project sponsors submit their projects to the board for approval. Better yet, have the project sponsors make brief presentations to the board and respond to questions.

2

Define Selection Criteria

The Project Board should define the project selection criteria. Defining and communicating the criteria saves time. Project sponsors will not waste time on projects that will not make the cut. For example, selection criteria might include: 1) strategic importance, 2) regulatory compliance, 3) financial viability, and 4) business and technical flexibility to accommodate future changes, to name a few.

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Ask the Right Questions at the Right Time

The success of a project manager largely lies in the individual’s ability to communicate. Some project managers have great oratory skills but don’t ask the right questions at the right time.

Here are some key questions for each of the project management process groups. This is not meant to be a comprehensive list; just some questions to get you thinking. Neither will you need to ask all of these questions for every project.

Keep in mind, the project process groups are seldom sequential, one-time events; they are overlapping activities that occur throughout the project.

Ask the Right Questions at the Right Time

Initiating Process Group

  1. Why are we doing this project?
  2. Is your project sponsor fully engaged and on board?
  3. What is the authority level of the project manager?
  4. What do we wish to accomplish?
  5. What are the products and services we wish to deliver?
  6. What are the budget constraints?
  7. What are the schedule constraints?
  8. What assumptions are being made?
  9. Who will be impacted? Which stakeholders have the greatest interest and power?
  10. Who will comprise the project team?
  11. What are the most significant risks?
  12. How will we know if the project was successful?

The Project Charter

Unfortunately, many people think of the project charter as an administrative hoop they must jump through to get their project approved. Therefore, many charters are written hastily with little thought.


The value of the charter process is engaging stakeholders, discussing the issues, resolving conflicts, and getting agreement as you initiate the project. The stakeholder interest is considered and aligned, resulting in less likelihood of costly changes later in the project.


Read: How to Develop a Project Charter

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Are You Making These 8 Stakeholder Mistakes?

Have you ever had someone torpedo your project? Did this individual have a motive to undermine your efforts? Or, did you make some stakeholder mistakes that gave rise to this event?

Either way, it's hindering your progress. Things are not going as planned. What can we do to manage stakeholder risks better?

stakeholder mistakes

A Stakeholder Story

I once observed a  junior project manager who was knighted to manage a project with a fixed regulatory deadline. Software changes were needed. The project sponsor told the project manager that it was critical that the project be delivered on time. No exceptions!

sword

Knighted Project Manager 

The project manager formed a project team. Within days, the project team started making programming changes. The team worked evenings and weekends.

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How to Initiate a Project Steering Committee

Someone decided that it was a good idea to bring project management into your organization. Perhaps it was your CEO or operations manager or IT Director. But for some reason, it never took off. Project management has not been supported by your culture. Let's look at how to get things in flight with a project steering committee.

Project Steering Committee

What's the Current State?

Start with an evaluation. Here are some questions to aid you in discovering the deeper issues. Interview your stakeholders to get their feedback.

  • When your organization introduced to project management, what were the problems project management was to address? If the problems have not been addressed, what is it costing you right now?
  • What's working well?
  • What's not working?
  • How can we get more value from project management?

Initiate a Project Steering Committee

Sometimes, the person responsible for project management (e.g., PMO Director or Project Services Manager) fails to involve stakeholders in evaluating project management. This person makes changes in project management with little to no input from the people being impacted. A better approach is to get regular feedback through a Project Steering Committee.

The purpose of the committee is to improve process and results. The Steering Committee determines the required changes, how much change is needed, and how fast changes need to occur.

Who Should Comprise the Project Steering Committee?

It is best if an influential senior member of your organization sponsors the committee. The sponsor helps to establish the vision and ensures the commitment of resources. But this person doesn’t have to manage the committee.

The Steering Committee may be managed by the person responsible for project management, a person with the proper credentials and experience. The team should include representatives from different areas such as IT, project management, and business operations. Ideally, team members have had project management training and have project experience.

Team Size and Tenure

An optimal team size is six to eight people. Team members should serve no longer than a year. You may wish to implement a staggered rotation where you add a couple of new team members and drop a couple of team members periodically.

Meeting Frequency/Time

The Steering Committee may meet as often as desired—for example, monthly, quarterly, or twice per year.

Plan for Improvement

How should the team approach the evaluation and improvement? Determine the problems and define a plan for improvement.

  • Define the problem(s) to be addressed (e.g., requirements defects are being identified late in the projects or poor communication between projects).
  • Define the goals.
  • Describe how you will measure success (i.e., desired effects).
  • Define the scope of changes (e.g., risk management planning process).
  • Identify team members who will develop, implement, and test the changes.
  • Define the action plan and completion date.
  • Execute the plan.

Try executing the changes for one of your projects to test the improvements.

Reviewing the Results

Once the team has executed and tested the improvement plan, the team should report their findings to the Steering Committee. The team should recommend one of the following:

  • Make the change(s) for subsequent projects.
  • Do not make the change(s).
  • Test again with modifications.

Final Thoughts

Implementing project management in an organization is not an easy task. Why? Because people are resistant to change, particularly when individuals do not understand the reason for the changes. Be patient. Listen carefully. Evolve at a healthy pace, not too fast and not too slow. Your Steering Committee can provide the feedback necessary to guide your pace and maturation.